Why is BMAA toxic?

August 26, 2020 Off By idswater

Why is BMAA toxic?

They found that SOD1 containing BMAA tended to be less stable, leading the protein to fold incorrectly and to form clump-like structures. These misfolding and clumping features of SOD1 have been demonstrated to be toxic for motor neurons, so this seems like a plausible mechanism for the ALS-related toxicity of BMAA.

What does BMAA stand for?

β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA), a natural non-proteinaceous amino acid, is a neurotoxin produced by a wide range of cyanobacteria living in various environments. BMAA is a candidate environmental risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinson-dementia complex.

How does BMAA affect the brain?

BMAA has been shown to pass the blood-brain barrier where it is incorporated into brain proteins [3,12–14] inducing misfolding and aggregation [13]. Chronic dietary exposure to BMAA has been shown to trigger neurodegenerative changes in experimental models including non-human primates [15–17].

What is BMAA found in?

BMAA has been found in aquatic organisms and in plants with cyanobacterial symbionts such as certain lichens, the floating fern Azolla, the leaf petioles of the tropical flowering plant Gunnera, cycads as well as in animals that eat the fleshy covering of cycad seeds, including flying foxes.

How much BMAA is toxic?

Although acute toxicity of BMAA, when administered at doses as high as 4000 mg per kilogram body weight [16], has been shown in chicks [17], rats, and mice [16,18,19,20,21] and some neurotoxic effects such as hind leg splay and rigidity have been described when BMAA is administered via intracerebroventricular …

Is BMAA a Cyanotoxin?

BMAA and DABA are NPAA toxins produced by cyanobacteria [24]. [27] detected BMAA in British waterbodies along with other cyanotoxins such as microcystin, anatoxin-a, nodularin, and saxitoxin suggesting a health risk assessment of cyanobacterial BMAA in waterbodies.

What foods are high in BMAA?

Surprisingly, BMAA was found to be present in about half of the food we analyzed, including blue mussel, oyster, shrimp, plaice, herring and char as shown in Fig. 1 b–g. The contents of BMAA in these species were determined to be 0.01–0.90 μg/g wet weight of the sample tissues.

How do you test for BMAA?

The β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) ELISA is an immunoassay for the quantitative and/or qualitative screening of BMAA in water samples. The test is a direct competitive ELISA based on the recognition of BMAA by specific antibodies.

Does blue-green algae cause ALS?

Exposure to a neurotoxic molecule produced by blue-green algae seems to raise a person’s odds of developing amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), particularly for those under 65, a population-based study from Italy shows.

Can alcohol cause ALS?

The findings on the association between alcohol consumption and ALS are inconsistent; a recent population-based study suggests that alcohol drinking seems to not influence the risk of developing ALS.

Where is BMAA found in the food web?

BMAA has been shown to bioaccumulate in the marine food web, including in the muscles and fins of sharks. Dietary exposure to BMAA is associated with the occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques in nonhuman primates.

How is BMAA linked to Alzheimer’s disease?

Dietary exposure to BMAA is associated with the occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques in nonhuman primates. The findings of protein-bound BMAA in brain tissues from patients with Alzheimer’s disease has advanced the hypothesis that BMAA may be linked to dementia.

How is BMAA measured in a Dolphin brain?

To test this hypothesis, we measured BMAA in a series of brains collected from dolphins stranded in Florida and Massachusetts using two orthogonal analytical methods: 1) high performance liquid chromatography, and 2) ultra-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.