What is Kachrus circle?

April 4, 2020 Off By idswater

What is Kachrus circle?

Kachru (1985) described the spread of English in terms of three concentric circles: the Inner Circle, the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle. These circles represent “the type of spread, the patterns of acquisition and the functional domains in which English is used across cultures and languages” (Kachru, 1985, p.

What is kachru’s three concentric circles?

Kachru constructed a model of the different uses of English around the world. This model is comprised of three concentric circles, which he labelled: the inner circle, the outer circle and the expanding circle.

What is the expanding circle of English?

The expanding circle is made up of countries in which English has no special administrative status but is recognized as a lingua franca and is widely studied as a foreign language. Countries in the expanding circle include China, Denmark, Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Korea, and Sweden, among many others.

Why there are three circles of World Englishes?

The different circles are:

  • The Inner Circle is made up the traditional bases of English and its speakers are the ones in charge of providing the norms.
  • The Outer Circle represents the places where they speak official non-native varieties of English because of their colonial history.

What is expanding circle countries?

The expanding circle includes countries where English is spoken but where it does not necessarily have a colonial history or primary/official language status. This includes nations such as China, Japan, South Korea, Egypt, Nepal, Indonesia, Israel, Korea, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, USSR, and Zimbabwe.

Do countries from the inner circle use the same English?

The inner circle refers to the countries where English is used as the primary language, such as the USA, Britain, Canada, New Zealand, and Australia. The outer/middle circle denotes those countries where English usage has some colonial history.

Is Germany in the expanding circle?

… Germany is a country in the expanding circle and has a long and complex history with the English language. The role of English in Germany has been studied by Stefanowitsch (2002) and Hilgendorf (2007) .

Which countries are in the expanding circle?

Who are the countries involved in Kachru’s three circle model?

In the Kachru’s Three-circle Model, the Inner Circle Kachru’s model refers to the traditional bases of English, dominated by the mother-tongue varieties, where English acts as a first language (White, 1997). The countries involved in the Inner Circle include the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.

What does Kachru mean by three concentric circles?

Kachru in the mid-1980s th at allocates the presence of English into three concentric circles: The Inner Circle, the Outer Circle, and the Expanding Circle. The Inner Circle presents the co untries where English is used as a native

What does expanding circle mean in kachrus model?

In the Kachru’s model, the Expanding Circle refers to the territories where English is learnt as a foreign language.

Who are the critics of the three concentric circles?

Another researcher who criticized the model is Mollin (2006) who thinks that Kachru’s three concentric circles did offer a useful categorization for English in the world but failed to present the rise of English as a Lingua Franca among the speakers of the Outer Circle and the Expanding Circle.