What is a febrile transfusion reaction?

June 25, 2019 Off By idswater

What is a febrile transfusion reaction?

A febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) is defined as a temperature increase of 1°C over 37°C occurring during or after the transfusion of blood components. FNHTRs are more common in the transfusion of platelets.

What does febrile reaction mean?

Clinically, febrile reactions consist of a temperature increase of ≥ 1° C, chills, and sometimes headache and back pain. This can take up to 2 hours to manifest. Simultaneous symptoms of allergic reaction are common.

What is a febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction?

Febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs) are common, occurring with 1–3% of transfusions. FNHTR manifests as fever and/or chills without hemolysis occurring in the patient during or within 4 hours of transfusion cessation. Diagnosis is made by excluding other causes of fever.

What is the cause of a febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction?

Most febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) to platelets are caused by cytokines that accumulate in the product during storage. There have been numerous studies that have demonstrated high concentrations of leukocyte- and platelet-derived cytokines in stored platelet products.

How does febrile transfusion reaction occur?

Nonhemolytic febrile transfusion reactions are usually caused by cytokines from leukocytes in transfused red cell or platelet components, causing fever, chills, or rigors. In the transfusion setting, a fever is defined as a temperature elevation of 1º C or 2º F.

How do you prevent a febrile Nonhemolytic transfusion reaction?

The best way to prevent severe febrile reactions is to use prestorage leukocyte reduced red blood cells and apheresis platelets. If a patient continues to have febrile reactions to leukocyte reduced single donor platelets, it may be helpful to remove plasma from the platelet unit immediately prior to transfusion.

What are the signs of a transfusion reaction?

The most common signs and symptoms include fever, chills, urticaria (hives), and itching. Some symptoms resolve with little or no treatment. However, respiratory distress, high fever, hypotension (low blood pressure), and red urine (hemoglobinuria) can indicate a more serious reaction.

Who is at risk for febrile transfusion reaction?

Patients, who are febrile at the onset of transfusion or have been febrile in the preceding 24 hours, are more prone to febrile reactions. It is important to recognize and report febrile reactions because they may be the first indication of a septic or hemolytic transfusion reaction.

What are symptoms of febrile non-haemolytic transfusion reactions?

Chills, rigors, increased respiratory rate, change in blood pressure, anxiety and a headache may accompany this reaction but may also occur in several more serious transfusion reactions also, the most serious being acute haemolytic reaction, transfusion transmitted bacterial infection and TRALI. FNHTR is a diagnosis of exclusion. (1,2)

What happens when you have a transfusion reaction?

Chills, rigors, increased respiratory rate, change in blood pressure, anxiety and a headache may accompany this reaction but may also occur in several more serious transfusion reactions also, the most serious being acute haemolytic reaction, transfusion transmitted bacterial infection and TRALI.

When to stop a blood transfusion with a fever?

Fever and/or chills are most commonly associated with a febrile, non-hemolytic reaction, however; they can also be the first sign of a more serious acute hemolytic reaction, TRALI, or septic transfusion reaction. If the temperature rises 1 C or higher from the temperature at the start of transfusion, the transfusion should be stopped.

What are the symptoms of a febrile reaction?

Clinically, febrile reactions consist of a temperature increase of ≥ 1° C, chills, and sometimes headache and back pain. This can take up to 2 hours to manifest. Simultaneous symptoms of allergic reaction are common.