What are the fundus changes in a hypertensive patient?

June 4, 2019 Off By idswater

What are the fundus changes in a hypertensive patient?

Hypertensive retinopathy causes vascular constriction of retinal arterioles and typical fundus findings, such as blot hemorrhages, hard exudates and cotton wool spots resulting from ischemia within the nerve fiber layer.

What is a common Fundoscopic change associated with HTN?

With other abnormalities, hypertension is a significant risk factor, including retinal vein and artery occlusion, retinal artery emboli, and diabetic retinopathy. In addition, hypertension may accelerate nonvascular eye disease, including age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma.

What are signs of hypertensive retinopathy?

Hypertensive retinopathy is retinal vascular damage caused by hypertension. Signs usually develop late in the disease. Funduscopic examination shows arteriolar constriction, arteriovenous nicking, vascular wall changes, flame-shaped hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, yellow hard exudates, and optic disk edema.

Are cotton wool spots serious?

Cotton-wool spots are tiny white areas on the retina, the layer of light-sensing cells lining the back of the eye. Caused by a lack of blood flow to the small retinal blood vessels, they usually disappear without treatment and do not threaten vision. They can, however, be an indication of a serious medical condition.

What diseases cause cotton wool spots?

Cotton-wool spots (CWSs) are common retinal manifestations of many diseases including diabetes mellitus, systemic hypertension, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinically they appear as whitish, fluffy patches on the retina and eventually fade with time.

Can cotton wool spots go away?

Cotton wool spots classically disappear in 6–12 weeks, however in diabetic retinopathy they may persist for longer.

Are cotton wool spots normal?

In otherwise healthy patients, the observance of a cotton wool spot (CWS) is not considered normal. A single cotton wool spot in one eye can be the earliest ophthalmoscopic finding in diabetic or hypertensive retinopathy.

Is hypertensive retinopathy an emergency?

Hypertensive retinopathy is a common complication of systemic hypertension. Hypertensive choroidopathy is a less-common complication of systemic hypertension but can be the harbinger of a potentially life-threatening hypertensive emergency with end-organ damage.